There is general global recognition that climate change constitutes the greatest environmental challenge facing the world in this century. The project area has in recent times witnessed increased pressure on natural resources – pasture, wood fuel, and water – access, use and sustainability due to population increase, land fragmentation and privatization, sale of land, competing land use practices including wildlife conservation and large-scale commercial farming, lack of a clear policy on pastoralism and weak enforcement of existing environmental laws ultimately resulting in diminished livelihoods options in the rangelands, threatening the realization of the broader goals of sustainable development.

The environmental concerns are also complicated by disregard of indigenous knowledge, practices and values system related to environmental and natural resource management